Early tests and checks help detect cardiovascular disease, diabetes and some types of cancer early.
We offer you here a set of medical tests for early detection of dangerous diseases, which would increase the chances of successful treatment, according to a report by Vera Ermakova published by the Good House website in its Russian version.
1- Blood pressure
It is essential to have your blood pressure checked and monitored regularly. And after the age of 40, blood pressure measurement should become a routine procedure, and doctors recommend taking necessary measures if blood pressure exceeds the normal level.
The American Heart Association classifies blood pressure readings according to the following:
- Normal blood pressure: systolic less than 120 and diastolic less than 80.
- Pre-pathological: systolic between 120 and 139 and diastolic between 80 and 89.
- Stage 1 hypertension: systolic 140-159 and diastolic 90-99.
- Stage 2 hypertension: systolic 160 or higher, diastolic 100 or higher.
2- The level of glucose in the blood
Regular blood sugar testing helps detect pre-diabetes or type 2 diabetes in time. It is advisable to do the test at least twice a year, and to consult an endocrinologist if the indicator is above normal or very close to the maximum, especially if the disease runs in the family.
And the state of “pre-diabetes” (Prediabetes) means that the patient’s blood sugar level is lower than his diagnosis of diabetes, but at the same time it is higher than the normal level, and if not dealt with, the person will develop type 2 diabetes within 10 years or Less.
There are 3 tests to diagnose diabetes:
Fasting sugar: It measures the level of sugar in the blood 8 hours after fasting
- Normal: Less than 100 milligrams per deciliter.
- Pre-diabetes: 100-125 milligrams per deciliter.
- Diabetes: 126 milligrams per deciliter.
Sugar tolerance: It measures the level of sugar two hours after consuming a special sugary drink
- Normal: Less than 140 milligrams per deciliter.
- Pre-diabetes: 140-199 milligrams per deciliter.
- Diabetes: 200 milligrams per deciliter or higher.
HbA1c: This measures the blood sugar level over a period of 2 to 3 months.
- Normal: less than 5.7%.
- Pre-diabetes: from 5.7% to 6.4%.
- Diabetes: 6.5% or higher.
3- Cholesterol level
High levels of cholesterol in the blood doubles the risk of stroke, heart attack, kidney disease, and poor circulation in the legs. Since cholesterol is asymptomatic, it can only be detected by a blood test, so it is recommended to measure the cholesterol level at least once a year.
The following are the cholesterol and lipid tests and their readings:
1- Total cholesterol in the blood: It is recommended that its level be less than 200 mg / dl, because its high level is associated with health risks such as atherosclerosis and heart disease.
2- Good cholesterol: It is also known as high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and this type is good because it transports cholesterol from the body’s organs to the liver, which takes over the disposal of the body from it, and it is recommended that the level of this type of cholesterol be more than 40 mg / dl, preferably 60 mg / dL or higher.
3- Bad cholesterol: It is also known as low-density lipoprotein (LDL). This type is bad because it leads to the accumulation of cholesterol on the walls of the arteries, which leads to hardening of the arteries and causes heart disease, and it is recommended that the level be less than 100 mg / dl.
4- Triglycerides: It is a type of fat in the body, and its main source is food, and the liver is the one that converts fats into triglycerides, and their high percentage is associated with health risks, so it is recommended that their level be less than 150 mg / dl.
Women who have reached the age of 40 are advised to undergo regular breast examinations annually along with a mammogram screening of the mammary glands. After the age of 50, this test is recommended every two years. An annual mammary ultrasound scan is also recommended if the women in the family have a history of breast cancer or the woman has dense glandular tissue.
Colonoscopy is a test that detects whether there are changes or abnormalities in the colon and rectum, and it is recommended to do it once every 10 years after the age of 45. Generally, this procedure helps detect swollen, irritated tissues, ulcers, polyps, and early forms of rectal cancer.
6- Lung cancer tests
In the early stages, when the chances of successful treatment are high, lung cancer has no obvious symptoms, and the only way to detect it is annual CT scan. These checks are especially important for smokers, as well as for people over the age of 55. Because conventional radiography does not provide complete information, doctors recommend a CT scan.
7- Skin cancer tests
It is recommended that a complete examination of the skin, including the scalp, be performed to detect any suspicious spots or moles that could indicate melanoma.
Source : Al-Jazeera + Russian press + websites