Egypt is known for its striking cities and monuments with its roots in the depths of history, and its ancient capitals that have not yet revealed all their secrets, and which archaeologists and Egyptologists reveal many of their antiquities and treasures every year, through dozens of Egyptian and foreign missions whose excavations are spread across the country.
Throughout history, the cities that the Egyptians made capitals of the country have received great attention from explorers, orientalists and historians, who dealt with the features and history of those cities starting from the ancient capital of Memphis through Thebes and even Cairo in dozens of books.
Continuing with that interest in the history and landmarks of the Egyptian capitals over time, the Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities in Egypt set out to collect that history and those landmarks for 9 Egyptian capitals known to the country under one roof, in a museum it is setting up 60 kilometers from the capital, Cairo.
According to a media statement distributed by the Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities in Egypt, the scenario for displaying the new museum’s holdings – which is currently underway – includes introducing the visitor to the history of capitals that Egypt has known throughout its history, and presenting collections of the effects of those capitals, by using display techniques that highlight the aesthetic features of the museum’s exhibits. Of the artifacts, as the visitor takes a trip through time, to learn about the history of the nine cities that were torches of enlightenment, and remarkable historical civilization centers in human history.
The Secretary-General of the Supreme Council of Egyptian Antiquities, Mostafa Waziri, said that the museum consists of a main hall in which antiquities of a number of ancient and modern Egypt are displayed, numbering 9 capitals, as follows:
First – From the right of the visitor to the museum, the history and landmarks of 4 capitals will be displayed, namely, “Memphis,” “Thebes,” “Tell el-Amarna,” and “Alexandria.”
Second – From the left of the visitor to the museum, the history and landmarks of 4 capitals will be displayed, which are “Fustat”, “Fatimid Cairo”, “Modern Egypt” and “Khedivial Cairo”.
Daily life patterns
Third – the second level of the museum, which is behind the statue of King Ramses II, which is displayed in the museum, and is related to the administrative capital, and in this hall is displayed a group of different holdings that depict daily life patterns in each historical period of each capital separately, such as decorations and war tools And fighting, the system of government and various correspondences.
Waziri added, “The second section of the museum is a pavilion that represents the other world in the ancient Egyptian, and this part consists of the (Tutu) tomb, in addition to a hall of mummies, coffins and fatters that contain canopic vessels and a set of fake doors and alternate heads that simulate religious rituals in ancient Egypt. “.
Khaled Al-Anani, the Egyptian Minister of Tourism and Antiquities, had requested during his last visit to inspect the work in the new museum, to display more artifacts from various ancient Egyptian, Coptic and Islamic eras, in order to enrich the museum display that will tell visitors the history of the Egyptian capitals starting from Memphis, then Taiba and Minya. Passing through Alexandria during the Greek and Roman era to the city of Fustat, Fatimid Cairo and Khedivial Cairo, in a way that contributes to giving an integrated picture of the shape and development of Egyptian capitals through different historical eras.
Cairo between yesterday and today
According to the Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities in Egypt, the new museum in the New Administrative Capital, in addition to its narration of the history of ancient Egyptian capitals such as Memphis, Taiba and Tell el-Amarna, will also tell its visitors the most important stations in the history of the capital Cairo, centuries ago, and highlight to visitors the historical position of that city and its role as a center For cultural and civilizational radiation, through a presentation of landmarks from Cairo that deal with several historical periods, beginning with the capital, Fustat, and passing through the Fatimid and Khedive Cairo.
Historians say that present-day Cairo was formed from 4 historical cities:
The city of Fustat, which was the first metropolis of Islamic Egypt, was established by Amr ibn Al-Aas, may God be pleased with him, after its conquest to Egypt in 20 AH / 641 AD. And the city of Al-Askar, which the Abbasids built to be the capital of their rule in Egypt in the year 133 AH / 750 AD. And the city of Al-Qata`, which Ahmad Ibn Tulun established as the capital of his rule in the year 256 AH / 870 AD. And the Fatimid city of Cairo, which was established by Jawhar al-Siqali when the Fatimids seized control of Egypt in 358 AH / 969 AD.
Just as Cairo was known for its mosques and historical cities, it was also known for its old neighborhoods and suburbs, some of which remain to this day witness to the history of the capital of Egypt, and from these neighborhoods:
Husseiniya neighborhood, Bab al-Luq, Sayyida Zainab, Shubra, Bulaq, Khanka, Al-Harfash, Al-Ghouryeh, and Bain Kasserine
And its suburbs also: Helwan, Maadi, Ain Shams and Al-Matariyah.
Cairo includes historical cultural and artistic facilities such as the House of Books, which was founded by Khedive Ismail in 1871 AD, the Egyptian Museum, which was established in the Bulaq neighborhood in 1858 AD and then to its current location in Tahrir Square in 1902 AD, and the Egyptian Opera House built by Khedive Ismail in 1869 AD.
In the year 1881 AD, Khedive Tawfiq issued a decree to form a committee to preserve Arab antiquities, whose task was to register Islamic monuments in Egypt and work to preserve, maintain and restore them, and this committee is credited with preserving and restoring many mosques and historical buildings in Cairo according to the rules of Islamic art.