Inasmuch as there are many great opportunities arising from the one-state solution to the Palestinian issue, as there are many major challenges that face it and the obstacles that face it, in the Palestinian, Arab, Jewish and international levels, and the viewer of these challenges often becomes frustrated and frustrated; Because of its enormity and the difficulty of overcoming it, however, the Palestinian people no longer have other options after it was confirmed that the two-state solution was impossible to succeed, and after the series of disasters that resulted in the Palestinians and the Arabs. Whatever these challenges may be; Willingness, persistence, perseverance and creativity will guarantee finding the means capable of facing and overcoming these challenges in the medium term. That is, for no more than 30 years.
In the following, we review the most prominent of these challenges:
The Palestinians have to be frank with themselves, and to point arrows at it before directing it to the Arab and international reality, and whatever the challenges, the one-state solution in its first stage is basically a Palestinian choice and starts from the Palestinian court, regardless of the approval of the Jewish party or the Arab and international parties.
Before talking about the challenges and obstacles facing the two-state solution outside the Palestinian home, the Palestinians must be frank with themselves, and point arrows at them before directing them to the Arab and international reality, as the turmoil that the Palestinian home suffers from has caused countless damages to its national cause for over 70 years. The past years, during which the Palestinian people have endured untold bitterness and sacrifices, and whatever the challenges, the one-state solution in its first stage is a Palestinian choice in the first place, and it starts from the Palestinian court, regardless of the approval of the Jewish party or the Arab and international parties. However, this launch faces many challenges, and obstacles that can be overcome if the biggest challenges are overcome, namely:
1. The Palestinian leadership split
The Palestinian decision is still divided between the Palestinian Authority in the West Bank, more precisely, the “Fatah movement,” and the Hamas authority in the Gaza Strip. All internal and external efforts have so far failed to heal the rift, regardless of the Zionist role. The regional and international cause of this failure is that the main reason is Palestinian par excellence, and the Palestinian leadership, in both parts, must hasten to end the division and unify the national ranks before the catastrophe widens, in addition to the fact that the continuation of the division means strengthening and consolidating other Palestinian challenges facing the one-state solution.
2. The multiplicity of party ideologies
The ruling ideologies of the Palestinian political performance, from the start of the struggle until now, can be divided into 3 ideologies, ranging from left, right and center, while the left is represented by the forces and factions of the communist reference, on top of which is the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, and the right represents the forces and factions with an Islamic reference, headed by the movement. Hamas, and the center represents the liberal national forces, headed by the Fatah movement. These ideologies have, until now, been controlling the political scene in a sharply exclusivist and partisan manner, at the expense of the national ideology, which accommodates all in order to achieve the supreme goals of the Palestinian people, and as these three ideologies have stood in the way of achieving national unity and agreeing on a joint national liberation program, It will remain a major obstacle to the one-state project.
3. Adherence to Oslo and international legality
The leadership of the Palestinian Authority in the West Bank is still insisting on the two-state solution, and alone adheres to the Oslo Agreement and the resolutions of international legitimacy, although all parties have turned their backs on it without declaration, including the Security Council, the United Nations, the Quartet, the United States and the Zionist entity; Even the Arab countries, some have turned their backs on them as well, and hastened to establish political relations with the Zionist entity, and the rest is waiting. Unless the Palestinian Authority takes serious national measures to abandon this approach and adopt the one-state solution, this solution will remain incapable of moving forward.
4. The absence of a comprehensive national reference
The two Palestinian leaderships in both the West Bank and Gaza Strip dominate the political decision in a partisan manner on behalf of the Fatah and Hamas movements, without a real national reference governed by the law and the constitution, and this matter keeps control of the current political scene of the Fatah and Hamas movements, which makes abandoning the two-state solution and moving to the state solution The one depends on the position of these two movements, and not on a constitutional popular decision.
Second: a Jew
The challenges facing the one-state project on the Jewish level are more severe than those facing the project on the Palestinian level, and on top of these challenges:
1. The position of the Zionist movement
The one-state project is the beginning of the end of the Zionist project in the Arab region and the world, and the Zionist movement will stand firmly in the face of the one-state project, and with it the Jewish Agency and the Jewish lobbies in the United States and Western countries, and more than 50 thousand Jewish organizations around the world, and it will work to mobilize all organizations and parties It is not unlikely that the Zionist movement will work to enact legal legislation that criminalizes those who adopt this project along the lines of laws that criminalize anti-Semitism.
2. The position of the Zionist right-wing parties
Right-wing parties – of all kinds, moderate and extremist – will reject the one-state solution. Because it signifies the end of the purely religious Jewish state they worked for, and they look forward to completing their religious project based on alleged myths to dominate Palestine and the Middle East.
3. The founders of the Zionist state
The forces, institutions and people whose parents and relatives played a major role in building the state of the Zionist entity in various fields, and were able to establish a developed and superior democratic state in a stormy environment of hostility and hatred. These will stand firmly in the face of the one-state project, and consider it a blow to all efforts made by the founders from Fathers and grandfathers, and as a deliberate tearing apart of the dream that the people of Zion carried for thousands of years, as they claim.
4. The position of settlers and residents on Palestinian land and property
The settlers will firmly oppose this solution, and will refuse to give up their settlements in which their hopes and dreams have been fulfilled, in which their memories have been nurtured and their children raised, and likewise will the families and institutions that reside on the lands and properties of the Palestinians that were seized after 1948.
The Arab position is the least severe towards the one-state project, and it will be more responsive to it if it is adopted by a unified Palestinian leadership. However, there are many obstacles that will block the project, foremost among which are:
1. Some Arab countries responded to Zionist and Western requests or pressures to oppose the solution and put pressure on the Palestinians; To dissuade them from him and return to the two-state solution.
2. The Arab countries ’concern about the new state, its leading regional and international role, and its impact on the Arab regional theocratic system.
3. The fate of the political, military, security, economic, commercial and tourism agreements that some Arab countries concluded with the Zionist entity.
4. The concern of some Arab countries about the interruption of aid and aid that comes from donor countries and international organizations for their role in caring for the affairs of Palestinian refugees.
Most countries of the world are expected to respond to the one-state solution, including Islamic countries, given the political foundations on which this solution is based on democracy, freedoms, human rights, the rule of law, and the rejection of aggression and racism. However, some countries will strongly oppose this solution, namely:
1. United States:
The United States will be the strongest opposition to the one-state solution; Because this solution will cause great harm to US interests in the state of the Zionist entity, impose Zionist hegemony over the Middle East, and maintain tension and instability in the region. The Zionist lobby in the United States and the neoconservative movement will have the biggest role in standing up to this solution, similar to what was done in the past 8 decades.
2. European countries:
It is expected that the one-state solution will find strong opposition from European countries with colonial expansion in the Arab region, which played a major role in establishing the state of the Zionist entity on the land of historic Palestine, especially the United Kingdom and France, in addition to the countries that are subject to severe blackmail from the Jewish lobby in Within it are like Germany and the Netherlands.
These were the most prominent challenges facing the one-state solution, and someone might say: If this is the case, then what is the point of continuing with it and leaving the two-state solution? Reviewing these challenges comes to clarify two main things:
the first: Emphasizing that the two-state solution is not a panacea that will be implemented once the Palestinians adopt it, but rather faces many challenges and difficulties, as is the two-state solution, which was adopted by the Palestinians for nearly 50 years and ended with the disasters and setbacks it ended. In addition to confirming that the one-state solution comes to correct the wrong Palestinian decision to submit to American and Zionist pressure, and to adopt the two-state solution in the 1970s.
The second: Knowing these challenges, with the aim of studying, understanding and analyzing them, and laying down the best ways to deal with them, mitigate their severity and reduce their effects on the process of the one-state solution.