Home / news / Rabat Al-Khaddoor .. How did Andalusian women contribute to Sharia sciences?

Rabat Al-Khaddoor .. How did Andalusian women contribute to Sharia sciences?

Fatimah bint Yahya bin Yusuf al-Maghami, the sister of the jurist Yusef bin Yahya al-Maghami, was the best virtuous scholar of jurisprudence. She settled in Cordoba and in it she died, may God have mercy on her, in the year of nineteen and three hundred, and was buried in the ground (outside the walls of Cordoba). Never seen on the coffin of a woman was what was seen on her coffin ( From the large number of mourners).

(Andalusian historian Ibn Bashkawal in his speech on one of the most famous jurists of Andalusia Fatima bint al-Maghami al-Qurtubiyah)

The reader of the history of Andalusia thinks that that history was a struggle from its beginning to its end, a life of swords, the glow of spears, and the sorts of battles that hardly fail around the Andalusian island between Muslims and the Spanish Christians, just as others think that it is a life that combined luxury, luxury and bliss, especially in The palaces of caliphs, kings, princes, and the aristocracy, which spread political and social corruption. These are some parts of the Andalusian picture. As Andalusia knew two other classes that formed the great multitudes, and the dominant group that inhabited the metropolitan areas of Andalusia, its villages, castles and fortresses in all its parts.

In the midst of these social interactions, women were present and powerfully, whether in the aristocratic classes where women interfered strongly in matters of governance and politics often, or among the poorer social classes in the general areas of Andalusia, so the woman was the head of the house, and a helper for her husband and children outside the home as well, especially in The fields and farms that Andalusia distinguished, so it always produced the best varieties and agricultural crops. The scholar of Al-Andalus and its most famous jurist Ibn Hazm Al-Andalusi (d.456 AH) showed us the most famous professions in which the women of Andalusia worked, saying: “Among the women, such as the doctor, the cupping, the siren, the signifier, the comb, the mourner, the singer, the priestess, the teacher, the underrated, and the craftsmen in spinning and weaving.”[1]. However, a sizeable group of Andalusian women have come to learn Sharia sciences, such as the sciences of hadith, jurisprudence, readings, etc., so how did Andalusian women enter these scientific and religious fields? Who are the most prominent Andalusian women and scholars in this field? That is what we will see in our next lines.

The Sharia and religious sciences had a special place in Andalusia, for those who reached a great deal in it could reach the highest levels of employment such as judiciary, fatwa, and teaching, as well as the jobs of calculus, the police, and work in the various state offices, and for this reason the jurists had their honorable status. Because the jurist at that time was not only a religious scholar, but he was in most cases a broad-cultured, complex of knowledge, taking from every science a side such as literature, hadith, grammar, readings and so on, and for these reasons people began to study jurisprudence. As the functional and social future of the jurist was of remarkable importance and prestige[2].

Andalusians, like Moroccans, have relied in their jurisprudence studies on the main sources in Maliki jurisprudence, especially Muwatta ‘of Imam Malik, the Code of Sahnoun, the book “Al-wadhiha” by Ibn Habib, and “Ataba” by Al-Atabi[3]. It is true that there were remarkable attempts to enter the Shafi’i school, as well as the apparent doctrine whose great teacher was the scholar Ibn Hazm. However, this did not prevent the Maliki school of thought having the absolute religious and political authority throughout the Islamic era in Andalusia.

Women had a role in the activity of jurisprudence. As the sources of Andalusian history and translations provided us with a number of names of these jurists who contributed a remarkable role in the teaching and teaching of Maliki jurisprudence in Andalusia at an early period in the late third century AH and early fourth century AH, including the jurist Fatima bint Yahya bin Youssef al-Maghami, and she was from the people of Cordoba as the capital Andalusia, and it appears from her biography that her family was of a prominent scholarly position, and her brother Yusuf bin Yahya, a jurist, had a stature as well. Ibn Bashkawal said about her in his book “The Relationship”: “Fatimah bint Yahya bin Yusuf al-Maghami, the sister of the jurist Yusef bin Yahya al-Maghami, was the best virtuous scholar of jurisprudence. She settled in Cordoba and in it she died, may God have mercy on her, in the year of nineteen and three hundred years, and was buried in the lap (outside the walls of Cordoba). No woman’s coffin has ever been seen what is seen on her coffin (due to the multitude of her mourners)[4].

Among them was Khadija Bint Ja`far Al-Tamimi, husband of the jurist of Cordoba Abdullah bin Asad. “On the authority of her husband Abdullah in Muwatta al-Qanabi, a recitation was given to him, and she was restricted to hearing her handwriting in the year of ninety-four.”[5]. As for Radhia, who was the maid of the most famous Andalusian caliph Abd al-Rahman al-Nasir (d.350 AH), he freed her and married one of the boys of the Andalusian palace, whose name is Labib. She learned jurisprudence and performed Hajj with her husband in 353 AH. During her travels, they decided together to meet the most senior scholars at the time. Shaaban al-Qurti in Egypt and his counterparts, and Abu Muhammad bin Khazraj narrated it, and said: I have some of his books.[6]. It seems that Radhya Mawlati Al-Nasser was one of the jurists who composed as narrated by her pupil Ibn Khazraj.

And if the women of Andalusia had an interest in the science of jurisprudence, especially the Maliki, then a significant number of them were interested in the science of hadith, which is the science in which we find the interest of Andalusians with great interest, especially the books of Sahih, on top of which are Bukhari and Muslim, and the six books, and the works of Andalusian translations and history are almost overwhelming in thousands of Andalusians who paid attention to the compilations of the hadith, as well as its explanation, clarification, ambiguity and ambiguity.

The Andalusian woman had a participation in the study of the science of the Prophet’s hadith and its teaching. The servant of the city comes on top of them. She was originally a slave girl who was brought by her master from Medina to Andalusia, and “she was a black slave girl from Medina, dark in color, but she narrates on the authority of Malik bin Anas, the imam of Dar Al-Hijrah and other scholars of Medina, even some of the Hafiz said: She narrates ten thousand hadiths.[7].

Among them was Khadija bint Abi Muhammad Abdullah bin Saeed Al-Shentjali, “I heard with her father from Sheikh Abi Dhar Abd bin Ahmed Al-Harawi Sahih Al-Bukhari and others, and she shared with her father there hearing from his sheikhs in Mecca, may God protect her, and I saw her hearing in the origins of her father with his handwriting, and she came with him and died in Al-Andalus God rest her soul”[8]. Following their example, Fatimah bint Muhammad bin Ali bin Shari’a al-Lakhmi, her brother Abu Muhammad al-Baji al-Ishbili, joined them in hearing from some of his sheikhs, and the hadith author Muhammad bin Fattis al-Ibiri in all of his narration in his handwriting after mastery and examination[9].

As for Tawiya bint Abdul Aziz bin Musa, who is known as the beloved of Andalusia, I took on the authority of al-Hafiz, the scholar of Andalusia, Abu Omar bin Abd al-Barr, “many of his books and compilations, and on the authority of Abu al-Abbas Ahmad ibn Omar al-Azri al-Dalai, and her husband Abu al-Qasim al-Muqri heard her reading to him, and she was of good handwriting. She was born in the year of thirty-seven hundred, and she died, may God have mercy on her, in the year five hundred.[10].

Andalusian women also participated in a major issue in the science of readings, and Andalusia was famous for reading Nafi Al-Madani, the student of Imam Malik bin Anas, and the sciences of the Qur’an and readings have reached a very high status among Andalusians, especially in the region of Dania, east of Andalusia, on the shore of the Mediterranean, and the most famous scholars ever to this day This is the Imam Sheikh Al-Iqraa Abu Amr Al-Dani, who has become a teacher and students.

Some of the women of Andalusia participated in the flourishing of the science of recitation, and the narrations mention that the scholar Al-Muqira Othman bin Saeed bin Othman Al-Muqri (d.444 AH) read in Almería, one of the skilled women in recitation called Rayhana, so she read the Qur’an to him with her, and she used to sit behind Sitr and read it, and he indicates To her with a stick in his hand to the positions of the stances and intonation, so she completed the Qur’an with its seven famous readings, and he wrote a license for her with its chain[11]Then she became one of the sheikhs who later readers.

These are some of the most prominent manifestations of Andalusian women’s participation in the sciences of Islam, such as jurisprudence, hadith and readings, and women have proven their worthiness in all these fields, although the sources of Andalusian history have given us more details about women’s lives, and there is no doubt that many of the books that were translated for women did not reach us and were lost as Many sources of Andalusian heritage have been lost, and perhaps the most important of which is the book “Women” by Imam al-Qasim ibn Asbagh al-Qurtub al-Andalusi, who mentioned dozens of Andalusian women who participated in a large share in the sciences of Islam, taking, listening and teaching.

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Sources

  1. Ibn Hazm: Touq Al-Hamama, p. 46.
  2. Saad Al-Bishri: The Academic Life in the Age of the Caliphate in Andalusia, p. 155.
  3. The Contribution of Andalusian Women to Scientific Activity, p. 98.
  4. Ibn Bashkwal: The Relationship in the History of the Imams of Andalusia, p.653.
  5. Ibn Bashkawal: Previous, p. 654.
  6. Previous p.655.
  7. Ibn al-Khatib: Nafh al-Tayyib 3/140.
  8. Ibn Bashkwal: Previous, p. 657.
  9. Al-Dabi: In order to the petitioner, p. 477.
  10. Ibn Bashkwal: The Link, p. 658.
  11. Al-Dabi: In order to the petitioner, p. 361.




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