China … there in the east of the globe, its geography extends to expand the number of its population, and as long as its history has remained its Great Wall enveloped and defended and protected the invaders. In Buddhist Culture – Preparation for a foresight.
On October 1, 1949, Mao Zedong declared the creation of the People’s Republic of China on the ruins of the Chinese Republic, and also called the country “Communist China” or “Red China”.
After its third decade was completed, Leader Ding Xiaoping’s “prophecy” was that “the country needs half a century to complete the process of modernization and political and economic control.”
Ding Xiaoping began in the late 1970s to send missions to the western countries, to learn engineering, economics and modern management methods for the purpose of economic development in the country.
The people believed in the leader’s prophecy and set off, and it was only a few decades before China transformed from an isolated country into one of the greatest economic powers in the world, and became, as David Mann, chief international economist at Standard Chartered Bank, called it “the world’s workshop and the biggest miracle. Economic history. “
In the British capital, London, last year, during a meeting of the leaders of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) to mark the 70th anniversary of its founding, the file of the rise of China was present for the first time on the agenda of the summit.
The summit was preceded by warnings from US Vice President Mike Pence in which he said, “China seeks to control 90% of the most advanced industries in the world, including the industries of robots, biological technologies and artificial intelligence, and this includes fifth generation technology as part of its plan to become the dominant superpower.” Over the world in the 21st century. “
In this report, we take a look, in numbers and data, at the most important achievements made by China 7 decades after the declaration of its modern state:
The economic genie is fidgeting
China has gone through a transition, from a planned economy to a mixed economy with an increasingly open market environment, a system that has been formally called “socialism with Chinese characteristics” by the Chinese Communist Party, and these are some of the results of that transformation:
- In the 1990s, the growth rate of the Chinese economy reached record levels, and the country joined the World Trade Organization in 2001, giving its economy an additional boost.
- In 1985, the value of China’s exports reached 25 billion dollars, and they did not constitute more than 1% of the volume of world trade, and after only two decades, the value of Chinese exports rose to 4.3 trillion dollars.
- Today, China is the most powerful engine of growth for the economy, and contributes to 35% of global economic growth, and its importance for global growth is 3 times that of the United States.
- According to Factbook / CIA, the gross domestic product (CIA) equals $ 13.1 trillion.
- A World Bank report says that more than 850 million Chinese have managed to escape poverty, and that the country is striving to get rid of poverty completely this year.
- Unemployment does not exceed 4%, and illiteracy does not exceed 3% of the population.
Belt and Road Initiative
China presents to the world the Belt and Road Initiative project, which is internationally considered the main engine of Beijing’s policy internally and its diplomacy abroad, and it is the basic project of Chinese President Xi Jinping.
The project is considered the largest infrastructure project in human history, and it includes building ports, roads, railways and industrial zones, and seeks to connect nearly half of the Earth’s population with each other, and integrate one-fifth of the global gross national product by establishing trade and investment links that extend to all corners of the globe.
The initiative aims to connect the world with China in ways and paths of trade and political exchange, to act as a soft economic attack that will carry with it the political and security concerns of many regional and international powers, and its success depends on China’s ability to reassure its regional neighborhood and the international community that its initiative is truly for mutual gain.
Beijing pursued a foreign policy based on the principle of “non-interference in the internal affairs of other countries” that had appeared since 1954, but China is now a very different power than before with its possession of the largest army in the world and the second strongest economy.
China’s international influence depends on its economic strength, and it has so far lacked a “desire for hegemony”, a sense associated with the presence of an external mission, but Kerry Brown, director of the “Lao China” Institute at King’s College in London, says that “the elephant cannot pretend that it is.” Rat, “so observers believe that Beijing is expected to play a more active international role, increasingly similar to that of the United States.
China in Asia
China is an important trading partner for most Asian countries, including the ASEAN countries, India, Pakistan and the countries of Central Asia, along with the Arab region and the Gulf countries.
The United States has great concerns about Chinese expansion in Asia and in the Pacific and Indian regions, and Washington considers – according to reports published in American newspapers – that the Chinese investments proposed in the Belt and Road Initiative are nothing but a mask for military expansion.
Reports indicate that the states no longer enjoy military supremacy there, that their ability to “maintain the balance of power in their favor is increasingly questionable, and that they are struggling in defending their allies against China.”
Nevertheless, China seeks not to cause a crisis in the region, but if it does occur, Beijing’s goal will be to prevent US forces from reaching the “first chain of islands”, which is the South China Sea area bounded by a line that starts from southern Japan, through Taiwan and the western Philippines.
China and Africa
Trade between China and the continent grew from $ 10 billion in 2000 to $ 190 billion by 2017.
It is estimated that 12% of Africa’s industrial production ($ 500 billion annually) is taken over by Chinese companies, and certain African countries have been exempted from paying their debts due for 2018.
In the report issued by the African Center for Strategic Studies, Beijing manages about 2,500 development projects, civil works and construction projects worth $ 94 billion in 51 African countries.
The Chinese effort in Africa is not limited to economic penetration, so Beijing is working on the use of soft tools of cultural and diplomatic power. It gives African students a good opportunity to study in China, and it also brings them to their own home and spreads Confucius institutes to teach the Chinese language in African cities.
China sees importance to this continent, which provides 10% of global oil reserves and 8% of natural gas reserves, in addition to that it produces 80% of the world’s platinum, more than 40% of its diamond, and 20% of gold and cobalt.
China’s Strategies in Europe
China worked in Europe according to specific strategies based on dealing with each country separately and not with the European Union as a complete economic entity, thus ensuring that Chinese government companies deal with the local laws of countries.
Beijing has also resorted to appointing liberal cadres with a strong political history in the Chinese investment entity in Europe, and among the most prominent of those faces – according to press reports – former British Prime Minister David Cameron, former French Prime Minister Jean-Pierre Raffarin, and former German Deputy Chancellor Philip Rosler.
Finally, China sought to provide great economic support to European countries that suffer from economic faltering, and thus it was able to secure supportive voices within the European Union system.
Since 2008, the Chinese government has launched a group of Chinese businessmen who own companies supported in one way or another by the government to invest in the European continent, and in just 10 years these companies were able to conclude 678 deals in 30 European countries.
Chinese investments have managed to control 360 companies, starting from technology companies in the West and infrastructure projects in the East, through trains, airports, ports, football teams, power generation projects, radio stations, TV channels and tire companies.
In the relationship with Washington
The focus of the struggle between Beijing and Washington over who is the global superpower in the field of technology, as the matter is related to armament and infrastructure, to artificial intelligence, robots, supercomputers and autonomous cars, that is, in short, everything related to human life.
The US Census Bureau data reveals that the trade balance between the two countries tilts in favor of China, as US imports from China during the first quarter of 2019 amounted to about $ 106 billion, while the value of US exports to China amounted to about $ 26 billion.
The value of US imports from China amounted to about $ 540 billion in 2018, meaning that the United States imports goods worth $ 1.5 billion per day from China, while US exports to China were more than $ 120 billion.